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Souls at Sea was a big hit. He followed this with I Stole a Million for Universal. Raft was meant to remake The Patent Leather Kid and appear in the story of John Dillinger film with Cagney but both projects were called off.
He was cast in City for Conquest but turned down the role and was replaced by Anthony Quinn. He was meant to be in Star of Africa but the film was not made.
He turned down the lead in South of Suez and was replaced by George Brent. Both roles were played by Humphrey Bogart. Instead Raft made Manpower , with Edward G.
Robinson and Marlene Dietrich. During filming, Raft and Robinson came to blows, with photographs splashed across newspapers.
Raft then turned down the lead in All Through the Night , refusing to turn up on the first day of filming because he did not want to play a "heel". Raft wanted to appear in a film version of the musical Broadway , made at Universal.
Jack Warner refused to loan him out so Raft spent eight months on suspension without pay. They could only do this while making movies that Raft turned down; eventually Warners ran out of movies and they would have to go back to paying him.
They let him make Broadway. The resulting film was a mild box office success. Raft was discussed as a possibility for the lead at one stage, but never offered it.
Raft was one of many Warners names who appeared in Stage Door Canteen He was reportedly working on a play based on his life with W.
He toured the US, England and Africa, performing for the troops. It achieved a healthy gross. Following this he made a thriller at RKO for director Edwin Marin , Johnny Angel ,  which was an unexpected hit as well, making a profit of over a million dollars.
However it did lead to a radio series starring Raft, The Cases of Mr. In June Raft received some bad publicity when his friend Bugsy Siegel was murdered.
In the summer of , Raft had the title role in the radio adventure series Rocky Jordan. He played "the owner of a cabaret in Cairo whose life is steeped in intrigue.
Both were released through Lippert Pictures. He resumed his dancing career, doing an exhibit in Las Vegas. Raft was one of many guest stars in Around the World in 80 Days after which, said Raft, "the telephone just seemed to stop ringing".
Raft agreed but was rejected for a gaming licence because of his history of working at clubs owned by crime figures such as Owney Madden.
He appealed and managed to get the decision overturned and went to work at the hotel negotiating their show business deals.
This ended when Fidel Castro took over the country and stamped out the casinos. Raft was in Havana the night the revolutionaries arrived. In Raft was convicted of income tax evasion.
The following year he testified in front of a New York grand jury about Mafia financial transactions. Raft received an offer from Andy Neatrour to work as a host and part owner of a gambling club in London, the Colony Club.
Raft went there in The club was a success. However, after he went to the US for a short holiday he was banned from re-entering London in as an "undesirable".
In the early s, Raft appeared in a now-famous Alka Seltzer television commercial playing the role of a prison inmate. He worked as a goodwill ambassador for the Riviera Hotel in Las Vegas.
Raft was a stockholder in the Parvin-Dohrmann Corporation , a hotel and casino company which owned the Flamingo Las Vegas.
Raft himself, however, excoriated the film upon its release due to inaccuracies. Raft has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame , for contributions to motion pictures at Hollywood Boulevard, and for television at Vine St.
Raft married Grace Mulrooney in  , long before his stardom. The pair separated soon thereafter, but the devoutly Catholic Mulrooney refused to grant a divorce, and Raft remained married to her, and continued to support her, until her death in On hearing about the rumor of the hit, George Raft made a call, and the hit was supposedly cancelled.
Raft was interviewed by FBI agents in and The interview was about his knowledge of Louis Buchalter and Jacob Shapiro.
Raft was investigated for tax evasion in In he gave evidence when Bugsy Siegel was on trial for bookmaking. In Raft was sued by an attorney for assault.
Raft was present with Bugsy Siegel in when the latter was arrested for bookmaking. Raft attended the opening of the Flamingo Hotel.
In Raft vouched for John Capone when he got out of prison. In , Raft was denied entry into the UK where he had been installed as casino director at a casino known as the " Colony Club " due to his underworld associations.
Raft died from Emphysema at the age of 85 in Los Angeles , on November 24, Raft left behind no will. Raft turned down roles in the following films: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Online Data Transcripts Ozburials. Online Data Transcripts Byng Meth. These pages were produced by P. Alma Park Lutheran Cemetery.
PO Box Inverell Bangley Creek Cemetery Shoalhaven. Bankstown St Felix Cemetery. Bathurst Uniting Cemetery William St. Bellevue St Matthews Cemetery.
Berry General Old Cemetery. Binda St James Cemetery. Australian Cemeteries Index Online Data. Bland East Station Cemetery. Blayney Cemetery Memorial Drive Blayney.
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Alma Park Lutheran Cemetery. PO Box Inverell Bangley Creek Cemetery Shoalhaven. Bankstown St Felix Cemetery. Bathurst Uniting Cemetery William St.
Bellevue St Matthews Cemetery. Berry General Old Cemetery. Binda St James Cemetery. Australian Cemeteries Index Online Data. Bland East Station Cemetery.
Blayney Cemetery Memorial Drive Blayney. Boomi Cemetery Benson Street Boomi. Bourke Cemetery Gorrell Avenue Bourke. Braidwood General Cemetery Braidwood.
Brindley Park Grave Cemetery. Brushy Hill Cemetery Glenbawn Dam. Bungendore St Phillips Cemetery. Burragorang Central General Cemetery.
Burragorang Valley General Cemeter y. Camperdown Memorial Park Sydney. The necessary tramway deviations, 2 miles and 60 chains of track, were laid in using day labour.
The track consisted of rails laid on sleepers. The curve and the poles were manufactured by local engineering firms including the Clyde Engineering Co.
The Permanent Way i. The construction of the first stage of the station began in June and was completed in August By 30 June the following works had been completed: This has been used to level up the station site as required.
Belmore Park has been raised to carry the tramways to the station The Sports Grounds Moore Park cycling ground have been been formed and the best of the clay had been disposed of to Messrs.
The whole of the foundations to the main buildings have been taken out and concreted. On the 6th of August Inspector Murray went to Pyrmont Quarry to arrange for starting work dressing stone.
On the 7th August eleven masons started work, and on the 18th the first dressed stone was landed on the works from Pyrmont Quarry and was set in place on No.
This stone has been used in the building of retaining wall, Pitt-street, between Hay-street and the Ambulance Depot, near Devonshire-street; the tramway arrival and departure bridges, the piers of which have been carried up to impost and girder-bed level.
Shop fronts and arcades in Pitt-street Central Railway Station has buildings concentrated on its northern boundaries that are fed by large rail yards behind.
Together they form part of the fabric of the city of Sydney and form boundaries to its inner suburbs. The location of this station is on land that has been in continuous government use since the commencement of European settlement.
Various forms of public transport have radiated from this site since The open space of the rail yards adds to the experience of arrival to the city from the north and south by opening up vistas to the imposing Sydney Terminal with its landmark tower.
This open space permits the imposing Terminus and its Tower to be visible when viewed from a distance much as it was intended when originally built. The terminus and its approaches define formal urban spaces in the city fabric.
Devonshire Street Tunnel demonstrates the influence of the city on the complex. This tunnel was created on a pre-existing street to facilitate cross town pedestrian traffic as well as for the benefit of rail passengers.
The track layout of this yard has remained virtually unchanged since The rail sidings that take up the bulk of the land area were known as the Botany Road Yards.
These siding lines are still in service but are seldom used. The lines were used as storage yards for making up passenger trains and for goods being loaded and unloaded at the Parcel and Goods Sidings.
This was a major activity at the Sydney Terminal that has become obsolete due to the introduction of technological changes such as fixed sets of rail cars, and the phasing out of locomotive pulled trains, the use of a branch line cuts through the precinct providing access to Darling Harbour Goods Yard.
The underpass and overbridge date from The Mortuary Station with its siding and platform are on the boundary of Regent Street and are visible from Railway Square because of the low scale of buildings in the Western Yard.
Rail access to the Mortuary Station was from the main lines near the Cleveland Street Bridge, and has remained in service since the mid s.
Nearer to the present main station building there is the West Carriage Shed that is the last remaining carriage shed at Central Station. While no longer in use, it remains largely intact.
The six rail lines that enter the shed were connected to the yard through tunnels at the end of Platform No. The Parcel Dock is physically connected with the main station complex and has four platforms.
The use of rail transportation for parcel delivery has declined considerably. These platform sidings are still in use for temporary portable offices mounted on rail flat cars.
The sidings closest to Platform No. The Yard was designed for locomotive hauled trains. As this technology has gone out of use except for the Indian Pacific and Special Trains the yard has little present functional use.
With locomotive hauled trains the train was marshalled for running in one direction, it has the locomotive at the head of the train and a brake van near the rear.
This meant that trains when ending their journey had to be remarshalled before commencing their journey out of Sydney Station. The introduction of trains with driving positions at both ends of the train no longer require this process.
As the station originally handled locomotive hauled passenger trains for suburban, country and interstate service this activity was considerable.
Most of the steam loco facilities and trackwork has been removed. The decline in shunting and the removal of coal and water storage has seen a reduction in the level of activity in the yard.
Although it has progressed through various configurations, the landscape has maintained the same ground level since with its final layout being enlarged in by the removal of some houses and the realignment of Regent Street to its present format.
The PA electric car sidings were built only after the flyovers. Prior to the construction of the electric lines the yard was a goods yard containing Produce and Goods Sheds as well as the first carriage shed.
All have been removed from this precinct. The Yard is a small part of the original Sydney yard, of which a number of buildings remain which date from Later additional buildings are associated with the Electric Suburban System.
The construction of the electric system reduced the width of the Prince Alfred Sidings. Trains within this yard need to be protected because of vandalism.
The Electric Sub Station is part of the electrification works and is linked with the sub station at the Sydney Harbour Bridge. It also contains air compressors for the operation of pneumatic points within the Yard and the City Circle Lines.
A retaining wall forms the boundary with Prince Alfred Park, the retaining wall has been incorporated into the rear wall of the blacksmiths workshops.
A number of mature trees are growing on the boundary, the larges being a Moreton Bay Fig at least 80 years old.
Sydney Terminal is a high level, main line rail terminal. It is sited to dominate its surroundings and to mark the importance of the railways and its service to the state and the city.
This elevated siting also permits the use of the topography to gain road access to more than one level enabling the development of an extensive subterranean luggage network and separation of differing modes of transport.
The commanding position of the Terminus with large areas of open space sloping away from the building continues the public domain of Railway Square whilst maintaining a clear vista of the Terminus from the square.
The terminus comprises a colonnade and porte cochere, which originally provided an undercover area for passengers transferring to and from trams.
The Main Assembly platform is the centre of the terminus, around which all of the ancillary functions, such as refreshment rooms, waiting rooms and the booking hall were arranged.
This "platform" was accessed from both the East and West deck. Sydney Terminal now contains seven double platforms and one single platform, each with an awning , servicing a total of 15 tracks.
Platforms are for country and interstate services, while the remainder are for interurban services. The platforms run perpendicular to the main station concourse and all are dead end with the buffer stop.
Platforms have a centre run-round track, this was for locomotive hauled trains. It enabled the locomotive to uncouple from its train and either depart or re-couple on the other end to pull the train to the next destination.
There was extreme pressure on the speed to ready a train for then ext destination due to the lack of platform space and a steady growth of rail patronage.
These centre lines are now used for storage of electric rail car sets in off peak times. The platforms feature long timber framed canopies over some of the platforms incorporating Howe trusses.
Timber was used in lieu of steel because of the high cost at the time of importing steel. The only locomotive hauled trains now using Sydney Terminal are the Indian Pacific and special trains which usually use Platform 1.
Platform 1 has always been the main out of Sydney Station with the longest platform. Platforms 1 and were lengthened to their present length in covering the skylights to the Devonshire Street Subway for diesel hauled trains like the Southern Aurora.
To the west of the southern end of Platform 1 is the Inwards Parcel Office. This was the loading dock for parcels and mail from the post office.
The mail was loaded via a tunnel from the post office. The Parcels Post Office is an unusual urban building, being designed to be viewed from three sides.
Its symmetrical, boldly modelled elevations and its siting in the middle of an open space give it the presence of a public monument or sculpture.
Due to the oblique road approaches to the Railway Square this building forms a strong element within the Sydney Terminal Precinct. The track layout to Platforms have remained virtually unchanged since they were originally laid out in Major items from its period as a steam locomotive hauled train yard have been removed.
Ash pits and water columns that were part of the yard have also been removed. There is only one "yard controller" remaining within the Yard.
Previously, at least 2 Signal Boxes would have been located in the Yard at any one time, but these have been removed due to the mechanical interlocking system being computerised and pneumatically operated.
The Yard buildings have been altered significantly since the Eastern Carriage Shed was demolished. This large shed divided the central yard from the central electric lines.
The land where the shed once stood is vacant and the only remaining structures adding to this division of the yard are the Cleaners Amenities and the former Timetable Office with the garden.
The rail Yard connects to the passenger platforms of Sydney Terminal which are as originally designed and built, with the infrastructure for steam locomotives having been removed - these being water columns between each track near the buffers.
However, the concrete plinths remain. The Central Electric System runs near to the eastern boundary of the entire site. Developed in as part of the electrification and expansions of the Sydney suburban lines, it also linked through the City Circle underground rail system and the North Shore over the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
The Electric Station was part of the construction works overseen by Bradfield that included the excavation of the underground tunnels, the building of the Harbour Bridge, and electrification of the suburban rail network.
It was run separately from the rest of the rail yard. At the northern end of the precinct, six tracks leave the underground tunnels near Goulburn Street, and pass over Hay and Campbell Streets and Eddy Avenue where they enter the platform area.
The four platforms allow four eight trains to use the station, four trains in each direction. Leaving the platforms to the south, the tracks enter the unique flyover system.
The construction of the flyovers was to allow the transfer of trains from the designated platforms to the relevant line. There are two major pedestrian entrances to Central Electric: Both are constructed of Maroubra sandstone with classical detailing.
As at 8 August , the physical condition was good. The station opened on 5 August with 11 platforms, but was soon expanded to 15, and by had As part of the construction of the electrified city railway in the s, a new Central station was built.
Railway employees then referred to the main building and platforms 10 to 15 as Sydney Terminal Station and platforms 16 to 23, and the lower level concourse serving them, as Central Electric Station and the two stations were managed and staffed as separate entities.
South of these new platforms, a series of flying junctions were built. This involved the four southbound tracks passing beneath the northbound tracks with a series of diamond crossings allowing trains to cross lines without impeding trains traveling in the opposite direction.
As part of the project, platforms 10 to 15 were electrified, with platforms 1 to 9 following in To the west of Platform 1 there was a siding leading to two dock platforms for use of mail trains, now cut back to serve a motorail loading ramp for the Indian Pacific.
The hostel rooms are modelled on old train carriages. Carriage sheds to the south of Platform 15 were demolished in the as were the sheds to the west of Platform 1 in In February , Platform 18 and 19 of the steam station were wired for electric trains with a demonstration run from Sydney to Hurstville.
This wiring was transferred to Platforms 21 and 23 and Platforms 14 and 15 were wired for Bankstown electric train services commencing October and later worked into St James.
As the Homebush electrification was completed, Platforms 17 and 18 were wired. Electric trains to Hornsby via the main line commenced on 21 January Trains to Hornsby used Platforms 16 and Steam services to Parramatta and Liverpool were converted to electric in November Western electric trains began operating through to Wynyard from 28 February The eastern "suburban" part of the station, consists of 10 through platforms, all aligned north-south, two of which are underground.
Prince Alfred sidings, south of Platform 23, were used to stable electric trains until closed in August and later demolished to make way for the Airport line.
The two underground platforms were built as part of the Eastern Suburbs Railway. Construction commenced in but the line was not finished until While the plans called for four platforms, two for the Southern Suburbs line were intended to be used in the future and were used for archival storage by the railways.
A contract for a major upgrade of the station was awarded in March The new platforms will be built beneath platforms A temporary platform 12 will be erected in January Central serves all Sydney suburban lines except for the Cumberland and Carlingford lines.
The platforms are numbered from 1 to 25, with 1 being the westernmost platform and 25 being one of the easternmost. When opened, Central station had an indicator board with 22 vertical panels.
It was replaced in June by computer screens with the original indicator board conserved by the Powerhouse Museum. Central is the eastern terminus of the Dulwich Hill Line that operates to Chinatown , Darling Harbour , Pyrmont and the inner western suburbs.
The light rail stop is in an outside concourse area, near the main waiting area and departure hall.
This area was originally designed for trams, and as such was used by trams until , when the service was withdrawn. It was known as Railway Colonnade.
Light rail services operate in a clockwise direction, whereas the trams operated in an anti-clockwise direction. After Central was built in , the Devonshire Street Tunnel , to the north of the old station, became an underpass.
The underpass allows pedestrians to access the eastern "suburban" section from Railway Square and Chalmers Street. The place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales.
The primary historical importance of the Sydney Terminal and the associated yards is the continuation of use of this site, for railway purposes, since the construction of the first line, from Sydney to Parramatta, in The construction of the Sydney Railway yards and terminal is associated with the introduction of railways to NSW in and the subsequent construction of a rail network throughout the state, and interstate, initially by a private company and subsequently by the government.
The establishment of the railways in NSW and Victoria was undertaken during the same period albeit using differing technology and standards.
The development of the Sydney yards commenced in and was one of the first two yards in Australia, the other being in Melbourne.
Extensive workshop facilities were established to enable the repair of locomotives. From the late s the working functions of the Sydney Yards have gradually been transferred, initially to Eveleigh and, during the 20th century further afield.
Following the erection of the main terminus, and later the Parcels Post Office, in the 20th century the focus of the goods handling activities has transferred from the eastern to the western side of the site.
The majority of the working yard area disappeared with the construction of the City Electric lines however, a small pocket remains along the boundary with Prince Alfred Park.
The construction of the Darling Harbour Branch Line and the establishment of an extensive area for goods storage and transfer indicate the importance of the Sydney Terminal and yards in the distribution of produce from country NSW.
The construction of the Central Station or the Sydney Terminal on the site of the Old Burial ground was one of the larges planned interventions into the urban fabric of Sydney undertaken prior to World War 1 and is a rare example of a scheme that not only included a formal public building but also parkland and roadway.
The deliberate creation of the formal approaches, the widening of the streets to form avenues and create vistas, the separation and multi-layering of tramlines, vehicular and pedestrian access and the creation of subways resulted in the creation of an urban environment of a scale and character not before seen in Sydney, a character that would have been in sharp contrast to the residential character of Redfern, Chippendale and Surry Hills.
The development of the main terminus resulted in an increase in the commercial activity around Railway Square and influenced the choice of the site for department stores.
Following the introduction of trams, Railway Square and later Central Station became a major tram interchange with links to the suburbs and Circular Quay.
The link between Circular Quay and the Railway Station being a popular route, carrying in the order of 11 million passengers in During peak hour the George Street trams were 29 seconds apart.
The separation of the trams from other forms of traffic at the Sydney Terminal would have speeded up the flow of the trams. Little evidence of the existence of the complicated tram layout around Central Station remains.
With the expansion of the rail network across the state the coastal shipping network declined. Train travel was more reliable, the train timetable was not reliant on good weather conditions and the loading and unloading of freight was less hazardous.
Little trace remains of a once extensive coastal shipping network. Rather than Sydney Harbour , the Sydney Terminal became the main point of entry or departure for travellers to and from country NSW and for the movement of goods.
The construction of a city rail loop was proposed around the turn of the century and provision left adjacent to the main terminal building.
Construction did not to occur until the mid s. The demand for trams would have been lessened following the introduction of the city loop and the construction of the Central Electric Station.
Central Station, constructed to serve the expanding population of Sydney, was the first major metropolitan rail terminus to be constructed in Australia and is the main NSW terminus.
There have been three successive passenger termini on this site, each successive station designed to provide a much greater level of passenger accommodation than the former.
The debate concerning the location of the main terminal for Sydney occurred on and off during the last two decades of the 19th century. The technical difficulties associated with extending the line further north and the associated cost as well as changing governments resulted in the creation and abandonment of numerous station designs and almost as many locations.
The design and erection of a major terminal for Sydney, which allowed for future expansion indicated a climate of optimism regarding the future growth of Sydney metropolitan area.
The earlier station designs had allowed for the line to be continued northwards. The final scheme adopted involved the moving of the terminal to the northern side of Devonshire Street allowing the second Station to continue to function until the new terminal was operational.
The third Terminal did not allow for the continuation of the lines, resulting in the construction of the adjacent Central Electric Station, when an extension into the city was agreed.
The design of the Sydney Terminal was modified for cost cutting purposes however, it still represented considerable expenditure by the State Government.
The second stage of the main terminus was one of the largest of the limited building projects, undertaken by the government during World War 1.
The two stages are almost imperceptible and the overall character of the initial design was continued in the second stage.
The second stage was not completed, plinths were constructed for the cupolas flanking the central bay but the cupolas themselves were not constructed.
There are few other known examples of a purpose built mortuary stations anywhere in the world. The other stations which may have been solely Mortuary Stations exist in England, Sutherland and Sandgate.
The pair of Mortuary Stations are the only examples in Australasia. The Mortuary Stations is one of the oldest surviving stations in Australia, there a few remaining examples of stations which date from pre Four other examples remain in NSW and a series of five identical stations were built in Victoria c.
The erection of a permanent Mortuary Stations, within 15 years of the commencement of the rail network in NSW is an indication of not only the rapid expansion of the railway but that it had rapidly become accepted as a mode of transport by the citizens of Sydney.
The Railway Institute was the first such institution of its type in Australia, providing a high level of facilities for the employees.
The Parcel Post Office was constructed in this location as the majority of parcels were carried by rail. The size of the building indicates the volume of parcels handled, or planned for.
Together with the remaining structures and works on the Sydney main line to the old Parramatta station. The Dive is one of the earliest surviving cuttings and overbridges in NSW.
Built as a branch off the initial railway line from Sydney to Parramatta, to provide a link with Darling harbour and to enable goods to be transferred to and from ships, the Darling Harbour Branch Line formed part of an extensive trade network to provide for the export of Australian grown wool.
This rail link was influential in the development of Darling Harbour in the second half of the 19th century. The use of Sydney Cove for trade purposes declined, as access by land became more congested, and there was a corresponding increase in the use of Darling Harbour.
This link, although disused, is retained for emergency purposes. The developments of the railways in Europe were closely followed in Australia and initially the locomotives, carriages, rolling stock and rails were imported from England.
The technology was imported directly with little or no modification. The railway lines in NSW were designed and built by engineers who trained under the prominent British railway engineers.
Between and the majority of the construction work within the Central Station complex, the sewers, the railway lines, the Mortuary Station, the Main Terminus and approaches, the road re-alignments, the tramlines and the construction of the Parcels Post Office was undertaken by branches of the Public Works Department.
The overall layout, approaches and the Eddy Avenue level, as well as the remainder of the stations in NSW constructed prior to were designed by the Railway Construction Branch.
Railway construction was separated from remainder of the Department of Public Works during the construction of the second stage of the main terminus.
With the exception of the Central Electric Station, the station buildings were designed for steam trains. The tank engines required constant maintenance and supplies of fuel and water which were available at nearby Eveleigh.
Associated with the passenger station were working yards which provided evidence of the changing technology of train travel, from steam to electrification and diesel.
The railway yards were necessary to allow for the shunting of trains as well as to store and maintain carriages and for the transfer of goods.
Traces of the workings of the yards during the steam train era remain including water tanks and columns.
The changes in the predominant building materials, and the way in which they are employed, with sandstone and corrugated iron being used until c.
After the inquiry into building materials for public buildings sandstone was used for all major public buildings. The use of sandstone therefore indicates the status of a particular building.
Particular building styles, details and material were associated with the railways and were used for the construction of the early stages of the Sydney Terminal complex.
The remaining workshop buildings feature standard windows that are also found in the Eveleigh and Honeysuckle workshop buildings. Moulded and polychromatic bricks were used in the second station building and its additions, other examples of this style of station building, designed by John Whitton remain in country NSW locations such as Albury.
In contrast the main terminus is of a scale and character that is unique in NSW. The construction of the railways utilised large quantities of bricks not only for buildings but also for the creation of flyovers, bridges, embankments and retaining walls.
There exists a tradition of recycling of building elements from railway buildings, particularly the cast iron elements such as canopy brackets which could be utilised for verandah or platform canopies , columns and trusses, not only within the yard but also to other railway complexes.
Exampleas of such recycling can be found within the station complex. The first and second Devonshire stations both fronted Railway Square however, the expansion of the platforms in front of the second terminus building diminished any sense of formal approach.
The bellcote of the Mortuary Station and later the clocktower of the main terminal building could be seen from a great distance when first constructed.
The main terminus forms a prominent Sydney landmark and was designed to act as gateway to the city. The formal approaches and surrounding avenues enhance this characteristic.
The workings of the railway yard have always been visible from the Cleveland Street Bridge and Prince Alfred Park, however, plantings in the park in the 20th century have lessened the visibility of the yard.
There is considerably less manual activity within the yard than in the 19th century, however, the frequency of trains has increased considerably.
In contrast with the second Station where the lines passed through the new building, Station was a true terminal, the main building and concourse preventing any further extension of the line.
The majority of railway stations in Australia are located at a point along a railway line rather than forming the end point of the line.
The first stage of the main terminal building is reputed to be the first large scale use of reinforced concrete slab construction in NSW. The design of the Sydney Terminal were easily accessible from the main concourse, or assembly platform where a destination board detailed the arrivals and departures.
In major termini such boards have largely been replaced by computerised arrival and departure displays. The display board from the Sydney Terminal is now held in the Powerhouse Museum.
The concourse, or assembly platform, was designed as a place of assembly and was one of the larges covered public spaces in the city. Both men were trained in Europe and subsequently travelled there to inspect the latest projects.
Vernon studied a variety of building types whilst Deane concentrated on railway and tramway installations. Deane was particularly impressed by the American Stations, and modelled the proposed three pin truss train shed roof on Union Station, St Louis.
The influence on overseas precedents can be seen in the form and layout of the building, the architectural style and in the use of the three pin truss.
There are few precedents for the multi-level segregation of trams, pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
The Sydney Terminus was designed to form a landmark. When completed in the clocktower would have been visible from many parts of the city as it was the tallest tower in the city.
By creating the park and the wide avenues adjacent to the station the views to the clocktower were accentuated. A formal approach to the station, either through Belmore Park or up the ramps to the portico or via the cab ramp formed an elaborate sequence of spatial experiences unequalled in Sydney.
This progression was continued within the station building, through the booking hall, assembly platform [concourse] and onto the platforms.
The approaches to the terminus were to form the gateway to the city, tree lined avenues were created and Pitt Street widened. George Street not Pitt Street however, has developed to form the main thoroughfare north to south through the city.
The multiple levels of the main station building were designed to separate the types of traffic, vehicular, tram and pedestrian in the aim of preventing accidents.
Over the time the ordered separation has become less apparent, with the removal of tramway and bus services. The Devonshire Street subway was the first major subway in NSW, probably in Australia, introducing an urban form more common in the major European and American cities of the time.
The station was one of the largest buildings in the city, rivalling the town hall and the main government department in Bridge Street. The Mortuary Stations are considered to be one of the finest designs by the Colonial Architect James Barnet and were, at the time of their construction the most elaborate stations in Australia.
A series of identical Gothic Revival stations with residence attached were constructed in Victoria in the early s however, the design, and decorative detail is nowhere near as elaborate as the Mortuary Station.
The Mortuary Station is considered to be an exceptional example of the Gothic revival style, one of the finest in Australia and is comparable with English examples of the period.
James Barnet designed four major Gothic Revival buildings: He based his design, not only on Venetian Gothic prototypes, popularised through the writings of Ruskin but also on the work of the prominent architect Sir George Gilbert Scott such as the unbuilt Foreign Office.
The Gothic theme carries through the decorative motifs used throughout the design and the carved furniture, which resembled pews.
In contrast with the majority of stations the platform was tiled not asphalt. The level of detail is far higher than any other railway station of the period on the NSW system.
The sandstone elements were finely carved, including the medallions, the foliated capitals and the intrados soffits. Coincidentally, the station building used the same platform layout as the first temporary terminal at Devonshire Street building, i.
Its level of decorative detail was much higher and more permanent material were employed in its construction.
The Mortuary Station is the finest example of this type of station in Australia. The Mortuary Station was a local landmark, clearly visible from Prince Alfred Park, the Cleveland Street Bridge, from the grounds of Sydney University and seen by passengers arriving and departing from the Sydney Terminal.
This context has been largely submerged by 20th century developments. During the early s a number of public buildings were undertaken by competition.
These designs reflected the up-to-date trends in architectural design. The use of the Queen Anne Revival follows English trends, the style having been popularised by the London Board schools.
The choice of materials, in particular the moulded bricks and the red tiled roof are prominent features of the Queen Anne style.
This building features Marseille roof tiles for the first time in a building in Australia. The large hall still retains much of its decorative detail and is a rare surviving example of a small hall of the late Victorian period.
The building is one of few known examples of the work of the architect Henry Robinson. The building is one of three major buildings on the site designed by the Colonial or Government Architects Branch.
The building was designed in stages, as was the main Terminal building probably for funding reasons. The roofscape of the building is unusually prominent when viewed from a distance.
There are few other office buildings in Sydney where the roofscape is so visible. The Parcel Post is an early example of an office building, with an internal frame design which provides for the maximum free floor area.
It was designed before the introduction of fully framed buildings. The facade is load bearing masonry. The Darling Harbour Line is one of the few remaining structures which relate to the first phase of construction of the terminal and yard, when sandstone was the predominant material in the early phase of development.
It provides an indication of the extent of civil engineering works required to construct the first terminal and yards. The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in New South Wales for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.
The Sydney Terminus has always been a major passenger interchange. In contrast with the first two termini where the subsequent development was haphazard, the interchange between the various forms of transport at Central Station was carefully designed to lessen the chance of accidents.
Each station building also improved on the last in terms of passenger comfort, the first Redfern or Sydney Station being a hastily erected shed, the second station being designed to separate the arriving and departing passengers.
The third passenger station was constructed complete with numerous platforms, a covered assembly area and separate waiting and dining facilities for ladies and gentlemen.
A large workforce was once required to maintain and refuel the steam locomotives. Following the establishment of the workshop complex at Eveleigh the workshop facilities in the Sydney yards declined.
There are no longer workshop facilities at the Sydney Terminal, not even for electric and diesel trains. Many of the operations of the yards, such as signalling were once operated manually.
With the introduction of hydraulic and later electronic signalling the number of staff required to operate the yards has declined.
This trend is not peculiar to the Sydney yards. The development of the suburban train system allowed workers to commute rather than having to reside near to their place of work.
Vast numbers of commuters use "Central Station" as an interchange on a regular basis. The development of the rail network allowed fast and comfortable travel available to all.
The journey to Bathurst by stagecoach took 18 hours. The train would have been considerably faster and provided a higher level of facilities.
The Sydney Terminal was the point of departure for many travellers. The new terminus was designed with a capacity to double the passenger number, to an expected maximum of 40, per day.
With the increase in the use of the private car in the late 20th century the reliance on public transport has lessened however, Sydney Terminal Station is still used a large number of commuters on a daily basis.
The Sydney Terminus was designed with an elaborate and impressive booking hall, which was not only experienced by passengers buying tickets but also glimpsed by passengers passing through onto the assembly platform [concourse].
The experience of buying a ticket in such an elaborate and formal space would have heightened the sense of romance associated with travel.
Associated with the assembly platform [concourse] were a series of amenities which reflect the attitudes and customs of the period, separate dining, tea and waiting facilities were provided for ladies and gentlemen.
A barber and change facilities, including baths, were provided to allow passengers to clean up after their journey.
A reading room and dining room were provided for the railway commissioners and their staff, to mitigate against the fact that the terminal building has been located away from the centre of town.
The erection of the receiving stations at Sydney and within the Rockwood Necropolis was to enable the dignified transfer of the coffins from carriages onto the funeral train.
The station was designed to provide an elaborate setting for the mid to late Victorian rituals associated with both death and mourning.
The Gothic Revival style, generally more commonly associated with ecclesiastical or collegiate buildings, was employed to provide a suitable atmospheric setting favoured for funeral designs during the period.
One of the aims of the institute was to provide for the continuing education of the railway employees. Evening Classes and examinations were undertaken within the building.
The Honour Boards record the names of important people in railway history. The building has continued to operate as a facility for Railway employees for over a century and the halls within the Institute have been utilised for a wide range of social functions and during emergencies.
The Parcel Post Office was designed for an all male work force, there were no toilet facilites for women included in the original scheme.
The original scheme also included detectives galleries, to allow for the surveillance of the floor. The place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales.
In addition to the extant remains of the early stages of development of the site such as the Darling Harbour Branch Line and the imprint of the demolished heavy goods shed, evidence remains in the archaeological record of the former uses of the site.
The site of the main terminus was formerly occupied by the Benevolent Asylum, Carters Barracks and the Devonshire Street cemetery.
Re-location of the graves and demolition of the structures was recorded in the documentary evidence. As the site levels were raised to create the new station it is unlikely that all foundations were removed.
Other contemporary building projects were constructed leaving the former foundations in-situ. The Parcel Post Office is a comprehensive example of state of the art fire proof construction and its application to multi-storey construction techniques.
The rail line under George Street was one of the first underpasses to be constructed as part of the NSW rail network. George Street was initially carried across the track by a bridge.
Map of the station Map of the Central station precinct. Media related to Central railway station, Sydney at Wikimedia Commons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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